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HIGHER EDUCATION






The academic year in Britain's universities, Polytechnics, Colleges of Education is divided, into three terms, which usually ran from the beginning of October to the middle of December, from the middle of January to the end of March, and from the middle of April to the end of June or the beginning of July. There are about one hundred universities in Britain. The oldest and best-known universities are located in Oxford, Cambridge, London, Leeds, Manchester, Liverpool, Edinburgh, Southampton, Cardiff, Bristol, and Birmingham. Good A-level results in at toast two subjects an necessary to get a place at a university. However, good exam passes alone are not enough. Universities choose their students after interviews. For all British citizens a place at a university brings with it a grant from their local education authority. English universities greatly differ from each other. They differ in date of foundation, size, history, tradition, general organization, methods of instruction, and way of student life. After three years of study a university graduate will leave with the Degree of Bachelor of .Acts, Science, Engineering, Medicine, etc.Later he may continue to take a Master's Degree and then a Doctor's Degree. Research is an important feature of university work.

The two intellectual eyes of Britain—Oxford and Cambridge Universities - date from, the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The Scottish universities of St. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh date from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. In the nineteenth and the early part of the twentieth centuries the so-called Redbrick universities were founded. These include London, Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Sheffield and Birmingham- During the late sixties and early seventies sonic" 20 ‘new’ universities were set up. Sometimes they are called 'concrete and glass' universities. Among them are the universities of Sussex, York, East Anglia and some others. During these years the Government set up thirty Polytechnics. The Polytechnics, like the universities, offer first and higher degrees. Some of them offer full-time and sandwich courses. Colleges of Education provide two-year courses in teacher education or sometimes three years if the graduate specializes in some particular subject. Some of those who decide to leave school at the age of 16 may go to a further education college where they can follow a course in typing, engineering, town planning, cooking, or hairdressing, full-time or part-time. Further education colleges have strong ties with commerce and industry. There is an interesting form of studies which is called the Open University. It is intended for people who study, in their own free time and who 'attend' lectures by watching television and listening to the radio. They keep in touch by phone and letter with their tutors and attend summer schools. The Open University students have no formal qualifications and would be unable to enter ordinary universities.



Oxbridge.Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest and most prestigious universities in Great Britain. They are often called collectively Oxbridge. Both universities are independent. Only the education elite go to Oxford or Cambridge. Most of their students are former public schools leavers. The normal length of the degree course is three years, after which the students take the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (B.A.). Oxford and Cambridge cling to their traditions, such as .the use of Latte at decree ceremonies. Full academic degrees worn at examinations. Oxford and Cambridge universities consist of a number of colleges. Each college is different, but in many ways they are alike. Each college has its name, its coat of arms. Each college is governed by a Master. The larger ones have flow than 400 members; the smallest colleges have less then 30. Each college offers teaching in a wide range of subjects. Within the college one will normally find a chapel a dining hall, a library, rooms for undergraduates, fellows and the Master, and. also room for teaching purposes. Oxford is one of the oldest universities in Europe. It is the second largest in Britain, after London. The town of Oxford is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 911 A.D. and it was popular with the early English kings (Richard Coeur de Lion was probably here). The university's earliest charter is dated to 1213. There are now twenty four colleges for men, five for women and another five which have both men and women members, many from overseas studying for higher degrees. Cambridge University started during the 13th century and grew until today. Now there are more than thirty colleges. The most famous is probably King's College because of its magnificent chapel, the largest and the most beautiful building in Cambridge and the most perfect example left of English fifteenth-century architecture. Its choir of boys and undergraduates is also very well known. The University was only for men until 1871, when the first women's college was opened. In the 1970s, most colleges opened their doors to both men and women. Almost all colleges are now mixed. The universities have over a hundred societies and clubs, enough for every interest one could imagine. Sport is part of students' life at Oxbridge. The most popular sports are rowing and punting.



 

Speak about:

1. Stages of education in the educational system of the UK.

2. Different Types of schools in Britain

3. The system of examinations used in schools

4. University education in the UK.

6- Lecture. Theme: How they live (culture, leisure and holidays)

Plan:1. Holidaysand Traditions

2. Mass media.

3. Sports and leisure

4. Religion

The aim of the lecture:To get acquainted with the way of life, with the holidays, customs, museums and art galleries in Britain.

Key words:


holly – остролист

to blow up - взрывать

straw - солома

quality newspapers – «солидные» газеты

popular newspapers – желтая пресса

broadcasting – радиовещание, трансляция

advertisement – реклама, объявление

soccer - футбол

annually – ежегодно


The content of the lecture: HOLIDAYS AND CUSTOMS

 

New Year January, 1
Christmas December,25
ST. Valentine’s Day February 14th
Pancake Day February
Mothers’ Day March
Easter April
April Fools’ Day April, 1
May Spring Festival May, 1
Late Summer Bank Holiday August / September
Hallowe’en October, 31
Guy Fawkes’ Night (Bonfire Night) November, 5
Remembrance Day November, 11
Boxing Day December, 26

New Yearis not such an important holiday in England as Christmas. Some people don’t celebrate it at all. Many people have New Year parties. A party usually begins at about eight o’clock and goes on until early in the morning. At midnight they listen to the chimes of Big Ben, drink a toast to the New Year.



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