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DISCUSSION






 

I have always been interested in Kinesio taping since I got across with that method at school. I have always thought that this type of tape can be used in different areas of Physiotherapy and not only. It is rather simple, cheap and fast technique that can perform really good results. Although, the effect of Kinesio tape is not fully studied, many physiotherapists believe in it benefits. I have met different clients during my practice in Finland and abroad and more than half of them suffered from low back pain. Low back pain is a common disease all over the world. There are different treatments for that type of impairment. Kinesio taping is one of those treatment. I got an idea to check the effectiveness of such method on clients with non-specific low back pain. After the discussion with the tutor, the topic was set in November 2015.

At the beginning of December 2015, I started to search the information about low back pain and Kinesio tape. It was not very easy because the amount of information was huge but it was hard to find out the data that was needed for the research. I had to check different books, articles, web pages and compare the data, because some of it was not trustable or was too old. The next step was finding a client group for the research. Satakunnan Selkäyhdistys agreed to be a client group and the contract was signed in February 2015. After that, I had to find out what questionnaires I would use in my work, what questionnaires are reliable, fit the research and can provide important data. The search was difficult as the variety of tests and questionnaires is big and does not suit everyone. Finally, the optimal questionnaires were found and after that I've made my research with participants. There were nine participants at the beginning, but during the research three people dropped out due to the sick leave and I got only six results at the end. In my opinion, my results could be better if everyone would have taken part in the research. However, I had to analyze the data what I got.



I had a break off from March till May due to the Erasmus exchange program. I didn't work on my thesis during that period of time. I have returned back to the thesis process in June and then again had a break due to the summer holidays. I continued writing theory in autumn. It was a long and a hard process. Sometimes I had motivation and sometimes not. Practice and school in autumn was loading and it was difficult to concentrate fully on the thesis. The last and the hardest step begun in February when I was trying to finish theory part. However, at the end on March I've managed it and started analyzing process at the beginning of April. This process was not easy because it included statistical part, which seemed to be problematical for me. However, after some book research I've found a method how to analyze my results and the process went smoothly. Motivation was back again. Thesis presentation was planned to be at the end of May.

To sum up, the whole process went well and smoothly. I got positive results. The mean score between both groups was different as well for VAS as for the Rolland-Morris scale, but the difference was not significant. For the future, I can recommend to take more participants, so the results would be more reliable and significant. In my case, the results have improved but did not have significant effect. This could possibly be because the amount of participants was little. For the future research I would recommend to take around 30 participants or more due to Wilcoxon signed-ranks test recommendations.

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Bogduk, N. 2005. Clinical Anatomy of the Lumbar Spine and Sacrum (4th ed.) Elsevier: Churchill Livingstone

 

Delitto, A., George, S., Dillen, L., Whitman, J., Sowa, G., Shekelle, P. Low Back Pain: Clinical practice guidelines linked to the ICF of the American Physical Association. Journal Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2012. Referred 23.03.2016
https://www.orthopt.org/uploads/content_files/ICF/Updated_Guidelines/Low_Back_Pain_Clinical_Practice_Guidelines___JOSPT_2012.pdf



 

Floyd, R., & Thompson, Clem. 2008. Manual of structural kinesiology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages.

 

Halseth, T., McChesney, J., DeBeliso, M., Vaughn, R., Lien, J. The effect of Kinesio taping on proprioception. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2004) 3, 1-7. Reffered 2.12.2015
http://tapingbase.com/sites/default/files/Level%202b___The%20effects%20of%20Kinesio%20Taping%20on%20proprioception%20at%20the%20ankle_0.pdf

 

Hansen. L., Mark de Zee, J. Rasmussen, Thomas B. Andersen, C. Wong, B Erik. Simonsen .2006. Anatomy and biomechanics of the back muscles in the lumbar spine with reference to biomechanical modelling.

 

 

International Association for the Study of Pain: Pain Definitions. Bonica JJ. The need of a taxonomy. Pain. 1979; 6(3):247–8.

Kernisan, L. Activities of Daily Living: What Are ADLs and IADLs? Referred 20.02.2016 https://www.caring.com/articles/activities-of-daily-living-what-are-adls-and-iadls

 

Kolokov, A. & Salina, E. Лечение боли в спине. Journal of “RMJ” 2012. Referred 20.02.2016 http://www.rmj.ru/articles/nevrologiya/Lechenie_boli_v_spine_1/

 

Kishner, Stephen. 2015. Lumbar Spine Anatomy

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1899031-overview#a2

 

Luomajoki, H. 2010. Movement control impairment as a sup group of non- specific

low back pain

 

Malcolm, L. & Willis, O. What chronic pain does to your brain. 2016. Referred 23.03.2016 http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/allinthemind/what-chronic-pain-does-to-your-brain/7255032

 

McGill, S. 2002. Low Back Disorders. Evidence-Based Prevention and Rehabilitation. University of Waterloo, Canada.

Nusbaum, R. Acute Low Back Pain Versus Chronic Low Back Pain.2012. Referred 20.02.2016 http://www.backclinicsofcanada.ca/back-clinics-patient-question-of-the-week-11-12-12/

 

Paatelma, M. 2011. Orthopedic Manual Therapy on Low Back Pain with Working Adults. Academic dissertation. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä. Referred 3.01.2015https://jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/bitstream/handle/123456789/36789/9789513944360.pdf?sequence=1

 

Paatelma M, Kilpikoski S, Simonen R, Heinonen A, Alen M, Videman T. 2008. Orthopaedic manual therapy, McKenzie method or advice only for low back pain in working adults: a randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up. J Rehabil Med. 2008 Nov;40(10) Referred 3.01.2015

 

The Roland-Morris Low Back Pain and Disability Questionnaire. Referred 07.01.2015 https://depts.washington.edu/anesth/education/forms/pain/Roland-Morris-Questionaire.pdf

 

Tortora, G. & Derricksson, B. 2011. Principles of anatomy and physiology, international student version (13th ed.) United State of America: John Wiley and Sons.

 

Waddell, G. 2004. The back pain revolution (2nd ed.) Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone

 

Wheeler, A. & Murrey, D. Spinal pain: pathogenesis, evolutionary mechanisms, and management. The neurological basis of pain. 2005. New York: McGraw-Hill:421-52.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19242624

 

Website About Health. Who Should AVOID using Kinesiology Tape? Referred 23.03.2016
http://physicaltherapy.about.com/od/Kinesiology-Tape/fl/Who-Should-AVOID-using-Kinesiology-Tape.htm

 

Website of Emergency Care Institute. Referred 10.10.2015

http://www.ecinsw.com.au/pain-any-nmg

 

Website of Football Medicine, 2010. Referred 27.12.2015

http://footballmedicine.net/kinesio-taping-in-sports/

 

Website of International Journal of Integrated Care, 2005

http://www.ijic.org/articles/10.5334/ijic.141/

 

Website of Kinesiology taping guide. Referred 15.12.2015

https://www.researchgate.net/file.PostFileLoader.html?id

Website of Kinesio.UK. Referred 12.02.2016
http://www.kinesiotaping.co.uk/history.jsp

 

Webpage of Krooninen Kipu. Referred 13.11.2015

http://www.duodecim.fi/kotisivut/docs/f757188385/krooninenkipu.pdf

Website of National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2003. Referred 23.11.2014 http://www.ninds.nih.gov/

 

Webpage of National Institutes of Health Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center, Pain Intensity Instruments 2003. Referred 12.02.2016

www.mvltca.net/presentations/mvltca.pdf

 

 

Webpage of Red and Yellow flags in persistent pain. Referred 13.11.2015

http://www.gpscbc.ca/sites/default/files/Red%20and%20Yellow%20Flags%20for%20Pain.pdf

Website of The Fascia Therapy Blog, 2012

http://thescienceofphysicalrehabilitation.blogspot.fi/2012/06/fibromyalgia-advanced-techniques-for.html

 

Wood, S. Anatomy and physiology of pain. 2008. Referred 20.02.2016 http://www.nursingtimes.net/clinical-subjects/pain-management/anatomy-and-physiology-of-pain/1860931.fullarticle

 

 

 

APPENDIX 1


Esitietolomake tutkimukseen osallistuville


Nimi:_________________________________puh.____________________________
Ikä:__________________________________mail_____________________________
Ammatti_______________________________________


Kärsitkö teippiallergiasta?

 

Kyllä En En tiedä

 

1. Oletko kärsinyt selkä kivusta/jännityksestä? Kyllä En

2. Onko sinulla lääkärin/diagnoosia selän sairaudesta? Kyllä En

Jos on, niin mikä?________________________________________

3. Käytkö oireisiisi jotain lääkitystä (esim kipulääkitys ym) tai muuta hoitoa (esim fysioterapia)?
4. Kuinka kauan selän oireet ovat kestäneet? 1kk-3kk 4kk-6kk 7kk-12kk yli 12kk

 

Merkitse rastilla oheiselle janalle kipusi voimakkuus tällä hetkellä:

0= ei kipua, 10= sietämätön kipu

0__1__2__3__4__5__6__7__8__9__10

 

 

APPENDIX 2

ROLANDIN JA MORRISIN TOIMINTAKYVYTTÖMYYTTÄ KOSKEVA KYSELY

 

Kun selkänne on kipeä, teidän saattaa olla vaikea tehdä joitakin normaalitoimianne. Tässä luettelossa on lauseita, joilla ihmiset ovat kuvanneet itseään, kun heillä on selkäkipua. Lukiessanne niitä saatatte huomata, että jotkin niistä erottuvat muista, koska ne kuvaavat teitä tänään. Kun luette niitä, ajatelkaa itseänne tänään. Lukiessanne lauseen, joka kuvaa teitä tänään, merkitkää se rastilla. Jos lause ei kuvaa teitä, jättäkää kohta tyhjäksi ja siirtykää seuraavaan lauseeseen. Muistakaa, että merkitsette rastin vain, jos olette varma, että lause kuvaa teitä tänään.

KYLLÄ (1)
1. Selkävaivani vuoksi vietän suurimman osan ajastani kotona.  
2. Muutan usein asentoa saadakseni sen hyväksi selälle.  
3. Kävelen tavallista hitaammin selkävaivani vuoksi.  
4. Selkävaivani vuoksi en tee mitään sellaisia askareita, joita normaalisti teen kotona.  
5. Käytän selkävaivani vuoksi kaidetta apunani portaita noustessani.  
6. Selkävaivani vuoksi asetun makuulle lepäämään tavallista useammin.  
7. Joudun selkävaivani vuoksi ottamaan tukea päästäkseni ylös nojatuolista.  
8. Yritän selkävaivani vuoksi saada muita tekemään asioita puolestani.  
9. Pukeudun selkävaivani vuoksi tavallista hitaammin.  
10. Olen seisaallani vain lyhyitä aikoja selkävaivani vuoksi.  
11. Yritän olla kumartumatta tai polvistumatta selkävaivani vuoksi.  
12. Minun on vaikea nousta tuolista selkävaivani vuoksi.  
13. Selkäni on kivulias lähes kaiken aikaa.  
14. Minun on vaikea kääntyä vuoteessa selkävaivani vuoksi.  
15. Ruokahaluni ei ole selkävaivani vuoksi kovin hyvä.  
16. Minun on vaikea vetää sukkia jalkaani selkävaivani vuoksi.  
17. Kävelen selkävaivani vuoksi vain lyhyitä matkoja kerrallaan.  
18. Nukun huonommin selkävaivani vuoksi.  
19. Selkävaivani vuoksi pukeudun jonkun muun avustamana.  
20. Istun paikallani suurimman osan päivästä selkävaivani vuoksi.  
21. Vältän raskaita töitä kotona selkävaivani vuoksi.  
22. Olen selkävaivani vuoksi tavallista ärtyisämpi ja pahantuulisempi muiden ihmisten seurassa.  
23. Kuljen portaita ylös tavallista hitaammin selkävaivani vuoksi.  
24. Olen vuoteessa suurimman osan aikaa selkävaivani vuoksi.  

 

 

APPENDIX 3

Missä määrin vaivanne rajoittaa/rajoittavat

 

  ei lainkaan jonkin verran   kohtalaisesti erittäin paljon  
nukkumista
kävelemistä
seisomista
istumista
pukeutumista
nostamista
ihmissuhteiden ylläpitämistä
sukupuolielämää
vapaa-ajan harrastuksia
arjen askareita
liikkumista kodin ulkopuolella
keskittymiskykyä
autolla ajamista
työkykyä

 



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