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Fig. 2.2. Modes of Channel Activation. The probability of channel opening is influenced by a variety of stimuli. (A) Some channels respond to changes in the physical state of the membrane, specifically changes in membrane potential (voltage-activated) and mechanical distortion (stretch-activated). (B) Ligand activated channels respond to chemical agonists, which attach to binding sites on the channel protein. Neurotransmitters, such as glycine and acetylcholine, act on extracellular binding sites. Included among a wide variety of intracellular ligands are calcium ions, subunits of G proteins, and cyclic nucleotides.

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