АвтомобилиАстрономияБиологияГеографияДом и садДругие языкиДругоеИнформатикаИсторияКультураЛитератураЛогикаМатематикаМедицинаМеталлургияМеханикаОбразованиеОхрана трудаПедагогикаПолитикаПравоПсихологияРелигияРиторикаСоциологияСпортСтроительствоТехнологияТуризмФизикаФилософияФинансыХимияЧерчениеЭкологияЭкономикаЭлектроника
Connection defectology with other sciences
Defectology a branch of science that is concerned with the study of the principles and characteristics of the development of children with physical and mental defects and the problems of their training and upbringing. There are a number of special pedagogical sciences in defectology, including surbopedagogy (for bringing up and training children with hearing defects), typhlopedagogy (for children with visual defects); oligophrenopedagogy (for mentally retarded children); and logopedics (for children with speech defects). Defectology also includes problems of training and bringing up children with compound defects (blindness with deafmutism, blindness or deafmutism with intellectual impairments). Defectology includes in addition a special branch of psychology that deals with psychological study of the development of children with the abovementoined defects, as well as surdotechnology and tuphlotechnology, with are involved in the development of the technical means of training, correcting, and compensating for the defects. In defectology there is a continual differentiation and development of new fields (for example, the study of children with temporary arrests in mental development and of children with motor impairements); included in defectology are problems connected with the general education and vocational training of adults with defects, such as vision or hearing impairements. As an integrated branch of knowledge, defectology takes shape as a result of the development and convergence of its various fields and the establishment of general principles for the developments, training, and upbringing of children with different types of defects. Of great significance in elucidating these principles is the adoption of a complex, multilateral approach to the study of anomalous children, with the participation of eduators, physicians, physiologists, psychologists, and other specialists
Connection defectology with other sciences
Defectology is closely allied with a number of related sciences, including neuropathology, pathophysiology, general and medical genetics pathopsychology, educational and child psychology, general pedagogy, and linguistics. It in turn provides unique material for these sciences and for the theory of knowledge. Defectology was formed in the struggle against idealist concepts in the principles of the development of the anomalous child; these concepts had given birth to a theory about the severe limitiation of possibilities of development in anomalous children, reducing the principle task of defectology to the adaptation of anomalous children to elementary physical labor. Favorable to the development of old defectology were the legislative acts of the government, whereby the training and education of anomalous children were included in the national system of public education; later, general compulsory education of these children was instituted, and special scientific research institutions and educational institutions for training defectology specialists were created as well. Considerable scientific methodological work is being conducted by the teachers of special schools. The journal Defectology has been published since 1969. Abroad instead of the concept of defectology, the more limited concept of the special education is applied, which narrows the field of defectology as a science and which has to a considerable degree a pragmatic tendency.
Speech is the vocalized form of human language. It is based upon the syntactic combination of lexical and names that are drawn from very large (usually about 10,000 different words) . Each spoken word is created out of the phonetic combination of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units. These vocabularies, the syntax which structures them, and their set of speech sound units differ,
creating the existence of many thousands of different types of mutually unintelligible human languages.
Most human speakers are able to communicate in two or more of them hence being polyglots. The vocal abilities that enable humans to produce speech also provide humans with the ability to sing.
A gestural form of human communication exists for the deaf in the form of sign language. Speech in some cultures has become the basis of a written language, often one that differs in its vocabulary, syntax and phonetics from its associated spoken one, a situation called diglossia. Speech in addition to its use in communication, it is suggested by some psychologists such as Vygotsky is internally used by mental processes to enhance and organize cognition in the form of an interior monologue.
Speech is researched in terms of the speech production and speech perception of the sounds used in vocal language. Other research topics concern speech repetition, the ability to map heard spoken words into the vocalizations needed to recreated that plays a key role in the vocabulary expansion in children and speech errors. Several academic disciplines study these including acoustics, psychology, speech pathology, linguistics, cognitive science, communication studies, otolaryngology and computer science. Another area of research is how the human brain in its different areas such as the Broca's area and Wernicke's area underlies speech.
It is controversial how far human speech is unique in that other animals also communicate with vocalizations. While none in the wild have compatibly large vocabularies, research upon the nonverbal abilities of language trained apes such as Washoe and Kanzi raises the possibility that they might have these capabilities. The origins of speech are unknown and subject to much debate and speculation.