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Polity of ancient India






1.State regim.

2. Local control.

3. Judicial system.

4. Army.

 

1. For Magadhsko Mauriyskoy-monarchical era characterized by increased power and the role of institutions fall breeding management.

The head of state is the king. With the transfer of power in strict succession - during the life of o king appointed on of his sons.

The king was at the head of state apparatus and has the legislative authority - was the head of the fiscal administration, the Chief Justice, issued edicts, appointed major government officials.

Important place in the court of the king's priest, who belonged to influential brahmana family.

King existed tips:

• Parishad - council royal dignitaries;

• Privy Council;

• Raja Sabha, or Royal Council.

In the case of extremely urgent cases Parishad members got together with members of the Privy Council, consisting of special agents.

In the age of the Mauryan Parishad acquired functions of the political council, doing testing of the entire system of management and execution of orders king. It consisted of the military and priestly aristocracy, which sought maintain their privileges and to limit the absolute power of the ruler.

In the early periods Parishad was wider on the composition and the nature of a democratic authority, has a significant impact on the rajah and his policies. Gradually, he fell on the quantitative composition, aristokratizirovalsya, his role was reduced to perform advisory functions under the Tsar.

Undergone similar transformations and Sabha - earlier on with wide- stava assembly of notables and members of the urban and rural population. By Mauryan era Sabha membership is much narrower, it also assumes the character of the king's council - Raja Sabha.

2. In the age of the Mauryan state had the following territorial- administrative division:

• Main province;

• usual province (Janapada);

• area (Pradesh);

• District (Akhal);

• village.

There were four main provinces, and they had a special status, including a large degree of autonomy. They were run princes. to test princes among local officials there institute special inspectors.

Led Janapadas were large state officials - radzhuki. In major cities, counties had the office. The village was the lowest unit of the provincial government.

3. In ancient India, there were two systems of courts:

• royal;

• intra-community (caste).

Highest court was the royal court, which was attended the king, together with the Brahmins and advisers to act in his or Judgical College (Sabha), consisting of the king appointed Brahmin and three judges. The king as the supreme judge owned the right to annually declare amnesty.



Interpret the law in a court could Brahmin, at least Kshatriya or Vaishii.

Starting from ten villages in all administrative units should appointed to the panel of judges of the three judicial officials. But criminal cases go special judge. Fighting crime in the city occupy the city authorities. Most of the cases were treated caste community courts.

4. War and plunder other nations seen as one of the main sources of prosperity of the state. Therefore, the army played a very important role in ancient India. Chief of the Army considered the king. Most of the stolen property is transferred king subject to the partition of the rest of the soldiers.

Army was recruited from the following sources:

• hereditary warriors - Kshatriyas;

• mercenaries;

• warriors supplied dependent allies, vassals.

The army also carried a function of maintaining public order. It had to stand in defense of national integrity.

 



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