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RUSSIAN EQUIVALENTS OF PARTICIPLES USED AS ATTRIBUTES






Russian English Examples
ACTIVE
1. читающий, который читает READING Look at this readingboy! He is only five.
2. читавший *, который читал (тогда) READING We looked at the readingboy. He had a nice voice.
3. прочитавший, который прочитал (раньше) who HAD READ   The boy who had readthe poem now was taking part in the discussion.  
4. который будет читать who WILL READ (is going to...) We've never heard of the actor who will readthe poems.
PASSIVE
1.применяющиеся, применяемые, которые применяются (обычно) USED   These are the methods usedfor metal treatment.
2. применявшиеся, которые применялись (раньше) USED   There were several methods used before the invention.
3.примененные, которые были применены (тогда) USED     This is the method usedin the first experiment.
4.применяемые, которые применяются (в момент речи) BEING USED   What do you think of the method being used?
5.которые будут применяться (в будущем) to BE USED (the Infinitive) The methods to be usedin our new project are quite modern.
1.3. RUSSIAN EQUIVALENTS OF PARTICIPLES USED AS ADVERBIAL MODIFIERS
1. читая, когда читаю, когда читал (when/while) reading (While) readingthis book 1 always remember my own childhood. (When) readingthis book 1 wrote out a number of useful expressions.
2. прочитав, когда прочитал, потому что прочитал (раньше)** having read Having readthis book 1 learnt a lot. Having readthis book 1 can tell you my opinion of it.

►NOTES:

* When translating Russian participles ending in -вший we use Present Participle (reading) only if the action expressed by the participle is simultaneous with that of the finite verb. If it is prior to that named by the finite verb, we use a clause.

COMPARE:

Я подошел к молодому человеку, стоявшему у двери. - I came up to the young man standingat the door. Все толкали молодого человека, вставшего у двери вагона. - Everyone pushed the young man who had placedhimself at the car door.

** Present Participle being(from to be) is not used in adverbial modifiers of time, we use "while-phrase" or a clause instead.

Будучи в Москве, я посетил Кремль.

While in Moscow(= while I was in Moscow) I visited Kremlin.

Будучи мальчиком, я любил играть в футбол.

When a boy(= when I was a boy) I liked to play football.

►NB! beingis used in adverbial modifiers of cause.



Being tired(= as he was tired) he went home at once. Будучи усталым (= так как он устал), он сразу же пошел домой.

 

EXERCISES

Ex. 1. (А, В) Translate the sentences from English into Russian, paying special attention to the function of the Participle in the sentence.

1. The boy playing in the garden is my sister's son. 2. You can get the book recommended in the library. 3. The other day I climbed onto a bus - one of the fleet that obligingly kneels beside the pavement - and found what was supposed to be a 15-minute journey through Midtown taking three or four times longer. 4. Receiving no letters from her father, she called him. 5. He left the office at three o'clock, saying he would be back at five. 6. She stood leaning against the wall. 7. No longer do you see ragged derelict figures standing in icy streets above hot air vents. 8. Seeing her he raised his hat. 9. Having signed the letter the manager asked the secretary to send it off at once. 10. Informed of the arrival of the ship, they sent a car to the port. 11. Having lived in that town all his life, he knew it very well. 12. Having worked in the city over a span of four decades, I cannot recall a time when New Yorkers have seemed so open. 13. Having been well prepared for the interview, he could answer all the questions. 14. Being checked with great care, the report didn't contain any errors.

Ex. 2. Translate the following participles.

I. (A)

покупающий, покупая, купленный, покупаемый получающий, получая, полученный, получаемый переводящий, переводя, переведенный, переводимый



I. написанный; 2. принесенный; 3. давая; 4. разговаривающий; 5. спрошенный; 6. отвечая; 7. читаемый; 8. рассказанный; 9. издаваемый; 10. работающий; 11. читая; 12. открывающий; 13. берущий; 14. потерянный; 15. сделанный; 16. стоя; 17. идущий; 18. входя; 19. смотрящий; 20. построенный; 21. видя.

II. (В)

1. разбитая чашка; 2 проигранная игра; 3. разорванный конверт; 4. проигравшая команда; 5. проигрывающая команда; 6. кипяченая вода; 7. кипящая вода; 8. забытый метод; 9. человек, забывший (раньше); 10. лающая собака; 11. испытанный метод; 12. жареная рыба; 13. жарящаяся рыба; 14. вспрыгнувший на стол кот; 15. прыгающая собака: 16. украденная тема; 17. смеющийся голос; 18. смеявшаяся девушка; 19. выбранная тема; 20. печеный картофель; 21. потерянный шанс

Ex. 3. (А, В) Complete the sentences with the present or past participle of the verbs from the box.

be destroy establish find read ruin translate use  

1 __________new to the business, I need lots of guidance.

2 __________in the 19th century, the college has a long and distinguished academic tradition.

3 Jim's work became too much for him, eventually _________his health.

4 _________the course very difficult, she decided to transfer to a lower level.

5 __________sparingly, this herb will subtly improve the flavour of your recipes.

6 Completely __________in the 1963 earthquake, the church has been painstakingly restored.

7 __________the letter quickly, he soon understood that the news was very bad.

8 Beautifully ________ by Caroline Jones, the short story has a poetic quality to it.

 

Ex. 4. (B) Paraphrase the sentences using participles instead of italicised clauses.

Model: When the shop assistant discovered that he had a talent for music, he gave up his job to become a professional singer. - Discovering that he had a talent for music, the shop assistant gave up his job to become a professional singer.

As he had witnessed the crime, he was expected to give evidence in court. - Having witnessed the crime, he was expected to give evidence in court.

1. When the editor learned that his newspaper had been taken over by another publisher, he resigned from his position. 2. I declined his offer of a loan and said that I didn't like owing people money. 3. The demonstrator who protested violently was led away by the police. 4. When I visit a strange city, I like to have a guide-book with me. 5. Motorists who intend to take their cars with them to the Continent are advised to make early reservations. 6. Now that I have heard your side of the question, I am more inclined to agree with you. 7. As he had been warned that bad weather lay ahead, the ship's captain changed the course.

Ex. 5. Join the groups of sentences, using participles, and making any necessary changes in word order.

I. (A, B)

Model: 1. He got off the bus. He helped his grandmother. Getting offthe bus, he helped his grandmother.

2. They found the treasure. They began quarrelling about how to divide it.
Having foundthe treasure, they began quarrelling about how to divide it.

3. He was exhausted by his work. He threw himself on the bed.

Being exhaustedby his work, he threw himself on the bed.

I. He realized that he had missed the last train. He began to walk. 2. She didn't want to hear the story again. She had heard it all before. 3. She entered the room suddenly. She found them smoking. 4.1 turned on the light. I was astonished at what I saw. 5. We visited the museum. We decided to have lunch in the park. 6. He offered to show us the way home. He thought we were lost. 7. She asked me to help her. She realized that she couldn't move it alone. 8. He fed the dog. He sat down to his own dinner. 9. I have looked through the fashion magazines. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out-of-date. 10. I didn't like to sit down. I knew that the grass was very wet.

 

Ex. 6. (A) Replace the adverbial clauses of time by the Participle.

Model: When you speak English, pay attention to the intonation. (When) Speaking English, pay attention to the intonation.

1. Be careful when you are crossing a street. 2. When you are leaving the room, don't forget to switch off the light. 3. When you begin to work with the dictionary, don't forget my instructions. 4. When they were travelling in Central Africa, the explorers met many wild animals. 5. When you are copying English texts, pay attention to the articles. 6. You must have much practice when you are learning to speak a foreign language.

 

Ex. 7. (B) Replace the italicised adverbial clauses of time by the appropriate form of the Participle using the model.

1. When I entered the room, I felt some change in the atmosphere at once. 2. When we had finally reached the river, we decided to stay there and wait for the others. 3. When I reached out in the darkness, I felt a stone wall where I expected to find the door. 4. When she opened the parcel, she saw a large box of pencils. 5. When they had finally opened the safe, they found that most of the papers had gone. 6. When she closed the suitcase, she put it on the bed. 7. When she had closed and locked the suitcase, she rang for the porter to come and take it downstairs. 8. When she had cut the bread, she started to make the coffee.

 

Ex. 8. Open the brackets using the appropriate form of the Participle.

I. (A, B)

1. She went to work, (to leave) the child with the nurse. 2. (to lay) down on the soft couch, the child fell asleep at once. 3. (to wait) in the hall, he thought over the problem he was planning to discuss with the old lady. 4. He left (to say) he would be back in two hours. 5. (to write) in very bad handwriting, the letter was difficult to read. 6. (to write) his first book, he worked endless hours till dawn. 7. (to spend) twenty years abroad, he was nappy to be coming home. 8. (to be) away from home, he still felt himself part of the family. 9. (not to wish) to discuss the problem, he changed the conversation.

II. (B, C)

1. (to reject) by the publisher, the story was returned to the author. 2. (to reject) by publishers several times, the story was accepted by a weekly magazine. 3. (to wait) in the reception room, he thought over what he would say. 4. They reached the peak at dusk, (to leave) their camp with the first light. 5. The friends went out into the city (to leave) their cases at the left-luggage department. 6. (to leave) a note with the porter, he said he would be back in a half an hour. 7. (to write) in an archaic language, the book was difficult to read. 8. (to write) his first book, he used his own experiences. 9. (to be) away so long he was happy to be coming back.

 

Ex. 9. (В, С) Fill in the blanks with Passive Participles of the verb in brackets.

1. a) I cannot forget the story ... by him. b) They listened breathlessly to the story ... by the old man. (to tell). 2. a) One can't fail to notice the progress ... by our group during the last term, b) These are only a few of the attempts now ... to improve the methods of teaching adult students, (to make). 3. a) We could hear the noise of furniture ... upstairs, b) For a moment they sat silent ... by the story, (to move). 4. a) The monument ... on this square has been recently unveiled, b) The monument ... on this square will be soon unveiled, (to erect).

 

Ex. 10. (В, С) Translate the words in brackets.

I

1. We came up to the man (стоявшему на углу) and asked him the way. 2. Go to the shop and ask the man (стоящего там) to show you the way. 3. The man (стоящий у окна) was our teacher last year. 4. Did you see in what direction the man (стоявший здесь) went? 5. He wants to write a book (которая бы подытожила) his impressions of the trip. 6. The people (ожидающие вас) have been sitting here since 3 o'clock. 7. The people (ожидавшие вас) have just gone.

II

1. (Рассказав все, что он знал) the man left the room. 2. (Постучав дважды и не получив ответа) he came in. 3. (Толкнув дверь) he felt that it was not locked. 4. (Тихо закрыв дверь) he tiptoed into the room. 5. Each time (рассказывая об этом случае) she could not help crying. 6. (Приехав в гостиницу) she found a telegram awaiting her. 7. (Приехав сюда) many years before he knew those parts perfectly. 8. We took a trip in a boat down the river (приехав обратно) when it was dark. 9. I felt very tired (проработав целый день) in the sun. 10. (Уронив монету на пол) he did not care to look for it in the darkness.

III

1. The conference (проходящая сейчас) in our city is devoted to problems of environment protection. 2. Unable to attend the conference (проходившую тогда) at the University, we asked to inform us about its decisions. 3. They are now at a conference (которая проходит) at the University. 4. Suddenly I heard a sound of a key (поворачиваемого) in the lock. 5. (Когда их поставили в воду) the flowers opened their petals. 6. The flowers faded (так как их долгое время держали без воды).

 

Ex. 11. (А, В) Translate the following sentences into English.

I

1. Гордясь своим отцом, он часто говорит о нем. 2. Выступая на собрании, я забыл упомянуть об этом факте. 3. Как зовут человека, говорящего сейчас по телефону? 4. Наконец она увидела человека, спасшего ее сына. 5. Некоторые вопросы, которые затрагиваются в докладе, заслуживают серьезного внимания. 6. Они усыновили (adopted) мальчика, потерявшего родителей в авиационной катастрофе. 7. Не найдя нужной книги дома, я отправился в библиотеку.

II

1. Путешествуя по стране, мы познакомились со многими достопримечательностями. 2.Поняв, что не сможет выполнить всю работу одна, она попросила меня о помощи. 3.Зная, что у меня достаточно времени, чтобы дойти до кинотеатра, я не спешил. 4. Приехав в тот вечер к своему другу, я узнал, что его еще нет дома, но что он придет с минуты на минуту. 5. Увидев, что такси подъехало к дому, он взял вещи и быстро спустился вниз.

 
 


Ex. 12. (В) Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Это была одна из историй, которые часто рассказывала нам мать. 2. Он не мог забыть грустную историю, рассказанную ему старухой. 3. Он внимательно слушал историю, которую рассказывала одна из девочек. 4. Девочка, рассказывающая эту историю, уверена, что это правда. 5. Обещанная помощь не приходила. 6. Где человек, обещавший вам помочь? 7. Говорившая по телефону девушка наконец повесила трубку. 8. Говорившая с моим братом женщина улыбнулась мне. 9. Это один из студентов, принимающих участие в конференции. 10. Я поговорил с одним из студентов, принимавших участие в конференции два года назад. 11. Мы шли по дороге, ведущей в город. 12. Здесь уже давно нет дороги, которая раньше вела к озеру.

 

Ex. 13. (В, С) Translate the sentences from Russian into English.

I

1. Секретарь отправил подписанные директором письма. 2. Мы внимательно прочли присланную Иваном статью. 3. В этой комнате есть несколько сломанных стульев. 4. Он показал нам фотографию восстановленного здания Русского Музея в Петербурге. 5. Разбитый стакан лежал на столе. 6. Все полученные товары были немедленно отправлены на склад. 7. Он принес мне несколько иллюстрированных журналов. 8. Мы послали каталоги по указанному адресу. 14. Его неожиданный ответ удивил нас всех. 9. В настоящее время мы имеем очень ограниченное количество этих машин на складе. 10. Прочитав много книг по этому вопросу, он смог сделать очень интересный доклад. 11. Войдя в комнату, он увидел нескольких приятелей, ожидавших его. 12. Проработав над докладом весь день, он чувствовал себя очень усталым.

II

1. Картина, висевшая здесь в прошлом году, сейчас находится в музее. Картина, висевшая в вестибюле, привлекла мое внимание. 2. Я вчера разговаривал с одним инженером, работавшим несколько лет тому назад в порту. Мальчик, работавший в саду, не видел, как я подошел к нему. 3. Студенты, переводившие эту статью, говорят, что она очень трудная. Я подошел к студенту, переводившему какую-то статью, и спросил его, нужен ли ему словарь. 4. Я хочу прочитать эту книгу, так как мой приятель, читавший ее, говорит, что она очень интересная. Я спросил у молодого человека, читавшего газету, который час. 5. Он не заметил письма, лежавшего на столе. 6. Ученый, написавший эту статью, сделает доклад в нашем институте. 7. Все студенты, получившие приглашение на эту лекцию, присутствовали на ней. 8. Мне сказали, что женщина, сидевшая в коридоре, ждала директора.

 



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