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THE INFINITIVE






The Infinitive is a non-finite form of a verb which has a verbal and a nominal character.

2.1 FORMS. TENSE/VOICE DISTINCTIONS

In modern English the Infinitive has the following forms:

 

  Active Passive
Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous to write   to be writing   to have written   to have been writing be written   ------------   to have been written   -------------

Negative form: not+ infinitive

□ She asked me not to cometo her anymore.

Like the tense distinctions of all verbals those of the infinitive are also relative. It means that the Indefinite and Continuous Infinitiveexpress an action simultaneous (parallel) with the action expressed by the finite verb. The Continuous Infinitiveshows an action in progress:

□ I amglad to meetyou. - Рад познакомиться с вами.

□ Elvis Presley was said to be the king of rock and roll. - Элвиса Пресли считали королем рок-н-ролла.

□ Mr Forsyte willbe glad to seeyou. - Мистер Форсайт будет рад видеть вас.

□ Не pretended tobe sleeping. -Он притворился, что спит.

The Perfect Infinitivedenotes an action prior to that of the finite verb. It is often used after some expressions (to be + adjective): to be glad, to be happy, to be sorry, to be surprised, it is clever/kind/silly of you, etc.

□ He claims to have seen the Queen. - Он утверждает, что видел королеву.

□ Не must have forgottenabout it. - Он, должно быть, забыл об этом.

The Perfect Continuous Infinitiveput emphasis on the duration of the action of the infinitive, which happened before the action of the verb.

□ She seems to have been working all the morning. – Кажется, она проработала все утро.

The Infinitive of transitive verbs has special forms for the Active and Passive

□ It is wonderful to loveand to be loved.Прекрасно любить и быть любимым!

□ The plane is supposed to have been hijacked. – Как полагают, самолет был угнан.

2.2 THE USE OF THE INFINITIVE WITHOUT THE PARTICLE "TO"

(The Bare Infinitive)

In modern English the Infinitive is chiefly used with the particle to - the formal sign of the infinitive. Still there are cases when the bare infinitive is used.

1.After auxiliary verbs:   I don'tknow her. We shallgo there at once.
2.After modal verbs:   You can'tdo it. You mustconsult the doctor.
3. After the verbs of sense perception to see, to hear, to feel, to watch, to notice, etc. in the Infinitive constructions: NB!After these verbs in the Passive the to-infinitive is used:   She heard him enterthe room. I've never seen you lookso well.     He was heard to mentionyour name. The child was made to obey. I felt my heart jump. She was seen to leavethe house early in the morning.
4. After the verb to let:   If he calls, let me know. Let's befriends.
5.After the verbs to make (= to force - заставлять), need (нужно) and dare (сметь, осмелиться) (in the modal meaning): How dare you callme a liar? What makes you thinkso? Need I dothe washing up?  
6. After the expressions had better (...лучше бы), would rather/sooner (...бы, пожалуй), cannot but (не могу не...), etc.: He said he would rather stayat home. You had better gothere at once. I can't but thinkabout it.  
7. In the sentences beginning with why (not) (почему бы вам...). Why not comeand talkto her yourself? Why paymore at other shops?
8. After formal words than, rather than, but, except.   Rather than walkfor half an hour, I'll take a taxi. I'll do anything but workwith children.




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