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THE COMPLEX SUBJECT (the Nominative-with-the-lnfinitive)

The Complex Subject consists of a noun/pronoun (in the nominative case) and the Infinitive. It is considered to be the subject of the sentence, its Russian equivalent is in most cases a subordinate clause.

Laser is known in medicine. Известно, что лазер широко используется в медицине.

The Complex Subject is used with:

1. the following groups of verbs in the Passive: ♦ denoting sense perception: to see, to hear, to notice, etc. □ The car was seen to disappear in the distance. Видели, как машина скрылась вдали. □ She was heard to laugh heartily. Слышно было, как она весело смеялась.
♦ denoting mental activity: to think, to consider, to believe, to expect, to suppose, to know, etc.   □ Не was thought to be honest and kind. Его считали честным и добрым человеком. (Считали, что он...) □ He is considered to have been one of the most popular writers of his time. Считается, что он был одним из самых популярных писателей своего времени.
♦ the verbs: to say, to report сообщать), to order, to ask, to allow, to state (заявлять), to announce (объявлять). □Sheis said to be workingat the factory. Говорят, что она сейчас работает на заводе. □ The delegationis reported to have leftMoscow. Сообщается, что делегация уже покинула Москву.
2. word groups: to be likely (вероятно), to be unlikely (маловероятно, вряд ли), to be certain/to be sure (несомненно, обязательно, бесспорно, непременно). □Не is unlikely to knowher address. Маловероятно (вряд ли), что он знает ее адрес. П □ Не is sure to be askedabout it. Его наверняка об этом спросят.  
3.pairs of synonyms: to seem/to appear (казаться, по-видимому), to prove/to turn out (оказываться), to happen/to chance (случаться). □Theyseem to have quite forgottenus already. Они, кажется, совершенно нас забыли. □The first experimentproved to bea success. Первый опыт оказался удачным. □Only yesterday wehappened to meetthe man. Только вчера мы случайно встретили этого человека.


1. The Infinitive in the Complex Subject is used in all its forms and expresses:

a) a simultaneous action

□ He is said to livein London. Говорят, что он живет в Лондоне.

b) an action in progress

□The water seems to be boiling.Кажется, вода кипит.

c) an action prior to the action expressed by the finite verb

□ They are reported to have finishedthe construction. Сообщают, что они уже закончили строительство.

2. The Infinitive in sentences with the Complex Subject cannot refer to the future except with the verbs and word-groups: to expect, to be sure/certain, to be likely.

We are sureto come to the heart of the matter. Мы обязательно доберемся до сути дела.

□Не is expectedto give us an answer tomorrow. Ожидают, что он даст нам ответ завтра.

3. If the verbs to prove, to seem/to appear (выглядеть, производить впечатление) are followed by adjectives or nouns, the verb to be after them can be omitted.

□ She proved(to be) very clever.Она казалась очень умной.

□Не seemsill. Он выглядит больным.

He appears an experiencedteacher.

Он производит впечатление опытного преподавателя.

4. After the verbs in the Passive Voice the Complex Subject is more characteristic of a literary than a colloquial style, except with the verbs to suppose, to expect, to make.


Ex. 1. (A, B)Translate the sentences from English into Russian.

1. The river is supposed to flow in this direction. 2. His childhood is said to have been very difficult. 3. You are expected to know these things. 4. He didn't seem to know you. 5. The situation seems to have become difficult. 6. He is said to have owned a very good library. 7. He was told to have organized the whole business. 8. The man doesn't seem to recognize you. 9. She seems to have done it especially for you. 10. You're not supposed to mark other people's books. 11. The actress is said to be very beautiful. 12. She was said to have a wonderful collection of china. 13. This doesn't seem to be the right decision.

Ex. 2. Open the brackets, using the correct form of the Infinitive.

I. (A, B)

1. He seems (to read) since morning. 2. She seems (to work) at his problem since she came here. 3. He appears (to know) French well. He is said (to spend) his youth in Paris. 4. The enemy was reported (to overthrow) the defence and (to advance) towards the city. 5. You seem (to look) for trouble. 6. They seem (to quarrel). I could hear their angry voices. 7. They are supposed (to work) at the problem for the last two months. 8. Her ring was believed (to lose) until she happened (to find) it while cleaning the house. It turned out (to drop) between the sofa and the wall. 9. They seemed (to wait) for ages.

II. (B)

1. She smiled broadly and waved her hand. She seemed (to recognize) me. 2. Even if he is out, you needn't worry. He is sure (to leave) the key under the door-mat. 3. At that time I happened (to work) at my first novel. 4. You won't be likely (to miss) the train if you start right away. 5. Don't cry! Everything is bound (to get) right between you. 6. She lost her head and seemed (to forget) the little English she knew. 7. A young woman is supposed (to write) this book. 8. You needn't mention it again. He is not likely (to forget) it. 9. He is believed (to teach) by his father. 10. You needn't tell me this. I happened (to give) all the details by Mother.

III. (B, C)

1. He seems (to be satisfied) to be doing nothing. 2. It seemed it would take not less than a page (to put) it into words. 3. The book is likely (to publish) and (to appear) on sale pretty soon. It is sure (to sell) well and (to sell) out in no time. 4. The man appears (to know) practically all European languages; he is said (to learn) them while travelling. 5. The river was reported (to overflow) the banks and (to advance) towards the suburbs of the city. 6. You seem (to look) for trouble. 7. The committee is said (to revise) the programme and (to work out) a plan of its realization. 8. The man seemed (to study) me and I felt uneasy in his presence. 9. The book was believed (to lose) until the librarian happened (to find) it during the inventory. It turned out (to misplace). 10. The strength of the metal proved (to over-estimate) by the designer. The engineer claimed (to warn) against its use for the purpose as it was likely (to deform) under great load.


Ex. 3. (B)Paraphrase the following sentences using the Complex Subject.

Model 1: It seemed that he knew the subject well. - He seemed to knowthe subject well.

1. It happened that they met that very day. 2. It proved that there were some broken cups in the case. 3. It seems that the play has made a deep impression on him. 4. It proved that he was a very experienced worker. 5. It appears that the house was built in the 18th century. 6. It happened that there was a doctor there at that time.

Model 2: It is reported that the delegation has left London. - The delegation is reported to have leftLondon.

1. It is known that he has a large collection of pictures. 2. It may be said that the new theatre is the most beautiful building in the town. 3. It was reported that the ship had arrived in Odessa. 4. It can't be considered that the results of the experiment are bad. 5. It is expected that many people will attend the meeting. 6. It is believed that there is hope of reaching an agreement.


Ex. 4. (B) Translate the words in brackets.

1. He is thought (был) a very good singer. 2. They are expected (пошлют) a reply today. 3. They are said (переехали) to a new flat. 4. Who is supposed (подпишет) the letter? 5. The doctor is supposed (прописал) you something. 6. The results of the experiment are believed (были) very good. 7. The new instrument is expected (поможет) scientists solve many important problems. 8. The members of the committee are understood (пришли) to an agreement. 9. He is said (предложил) them his services. 10. In the 19th century the dark areas on the Mars were thought (были) seas. 11. We were supposed (проведем) the day on board the ship. 12. The seamen were not supposed (сойдут) ashore that day. 13. The expedition is said (сделала) a very important discovery. 14. They were expected (пройдут) 300 miles that day. 15. She is known (интересовалась) in the subject. 16. They were heard (согласились) to do it. 17. The ship is expected (прибудет) here on Tuesday. 18. They are supposed (преследовали) him. 19. They were believed (знали) the secret at that time.


Ex. 5. (В, С) Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Видели, как она писала письмо. 2. Думали, что это она пишет эти письма. 3. Предполагали, что она написала это письмо. 4. Наверняка она и сейчас пишет письмо. 5. Конечно, она написала это письмо. 6. Вряд ли она пишет эти письма. 7. Вряд ли она написала письмо. 8. Конечно, письмо уже написано. 9. Конечно, она его уже написала..


Ex. 6. (В, С) Translate the following sentences.


1. Он, кажется, сердится на меня. 2. Он, кажется, болен. 3. Он, кажется, болел. 4. Они, по-видимому, пользовались этим словарем. 5. Он, кажется, знает ее хорошо. 6. Они, по-видимому, очень хорошо поняли это правило. 7. Кажется, все студенты читали эту статью. 8. Она, кажется, знает три иностранных языка.


1. Говорят, что он в Москве. 2. Ожидают, что договор будет подписан на этой неделе. 3.Сообщают, что экспедиция выехала 15 мая. 4. Известно, что он придерживается другого мнения по этому вопросу. 5. Считают, что он один из лучших летчиков нашей страны. 6. Говорят, что этот дом был построен около двухсот лет тому назад. 7. Он, кажется, знает этот предмет очень хорошо.


1. Эта книга, по-видимому, была переведена очень опытным переводчиком. 2. Коробка, кажется, пустая. 3. Этот вопрос, по-видимому, представляет для них большой интерес. 4. Казалось, что он доволен нашей работой. 5. Все, казалось, были удивлены, когда услышали это. 6. Дмитрий, кажется, сидит в читальном зале. 7. Он, кажется, ждет вас внизу. 8. Он оказался очень хорошим спортсменом. 9. Они оказались очень опытными преподавателями.


Ex. 7. (A, B) Paraphrase the sentences using the model.

Model: It is not likely that they will return soon. - They are not likely to return soon.

1. It appears unlikely that the experiment will give good results. 2. It is likely that he has accepted their offer. 3. It is sure that they will come to Moscow. 4. It appears likely that he will recover soon. 5. It is likely that there will be a heated discussion of this question. 6. It was unlikely that the meeting will be postponed. 7. It is very likely that his article will be published in the newspaper. 8. It is certain that they will be here on Monday. 9. It is likely that there will be a good wheat crop in the Ukraine this year. 10. It was not likely that the telegram would reach them in time.


Ex. 8. (В, С) Translate the sentences from Russian into English.


1. Очень вероятно, что делегация уже уехала из Москвы. 2. Самолет, вероятно, уже прибыл в Прагу. 3. Он, наверное, придет вечером. 4. Они, наверное, согласятся принять участие в этой работе. 5. Они, наверное, согласятся на ваши условия. 6. Вы непременно получите ответ от него на этих днях. 7. Он непременно получит приз за свою картину. 8. Его книга будет непременно напечатана в России. 9. Они, вероятно, не приедут в мае. 10. Они, вероятно, не получили зарплату сегодня. 11. Театр, вероятно, не поедет в Лондон в этом сезоне. 12. Этот вопрос, вероятно, не будет обсуждаться сегодня.


1. Правила, вероятно, изменятся. 2. Очень вероятно, что эта проблема будет обсуждена на заседании правительства. 3. Вряд ли он придет сюда. 4. .Очень вероятно, что собрание закончится через час. 5. Он, вероятно, будет дома в шесть часов. 6. Эти меры будут, вероятно, приняты. 7. Они вряд ли скоро вернутся. 8. Очень вероятно, что он знает, где работает Андрей Иванов. 9. Товары, вероятно, будут доставлены без опоздания. 10. Очень вероятно, что завтра будет хорошая погода.

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